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QPSK BER for AWGN channel

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In this experiment the bit error rate (BER) vs E b / N 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadw eadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaGccaGGVaGaamOtamaaBaaaleaacaaI Waaabeaaaaa@3B6D@ of QPSK over an AWGN channel is analyzed.

qpskber
Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) transmission

Start

The simulation starts with a setting of E b / N 0 =0dB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadw eadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaGccaGGVaGaamOtamaaBaaaleaacaaI Waaabeaakiabg2da9iaaicdacaWGKbGaamOqaaaa@3EE7@ (see marked line in the table below). This yields to this bit error probability:

p b = 1 2 erfc( E b N 0 )= 1 2 erfc( 1 )=7,865E02 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadc hadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaGccqGH9aqpdaWcaaqaaiaaigdaaeaa caaIYaaaaiaadwgacaWGYbGaamOzaiaadogadaqadaqaamaakaaaba WaaSaaaeaacaWGfbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadkgaaeqaaaGcbaGaamOtamaa BaaaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaaaabeaaaOGaayjkaiaawMcaaiabg2da9m aalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaaikdaaaGaamyzaiaadkhacaWGMbGaam4y amaabmaabaGaaGymaaGaayjkaiaawMcaaiabg2da9iaaiEdacaGGSa GaaGioaiaaiAdacaaI1aGaamyraiabgkHiTiaaicdacaaIYaaaaa@552A@ Bit error rate meter
Measured BER approximates the analytical bit error probability p b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadc hadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaaaaa@3922@

E b N 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaamaala aabaGaamyramaaBaaaleaacaWGIbaabeaaaOqaaiaad6eadaWgaaWc baGaaGimaaqabaaaaaaa@3ACA@

[dB]

Bit error probability

p b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadc hadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaaaaa@3922@

-2 1,306E-01
0 7,865E-02
2> 3,751E-02
4 1,250E-02
6 2,388E-03
8 1,909E-04
10 3,872E-06
Analytical bit error probability p b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadc hadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaaaaa@3922@ for QPSK

Experiment

Now adjust E b / N 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadw eadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaGccaGGVaGaamOtamaaBaaaleaacaaI Waaabeaaaaa@3B6D@ . Measure the corresponding BER and compare it to the analytical bit error probability.

Eb/N0
Simulation ? Settings (F11)

BER BER BER
Measured BER approximates the analytical bit error probability: E b / N 0 =2, 2, 4 dB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadw eadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaGccaGGVaGaamOtamaaBaaaleaacaaI Waaabeaakiabg2da9iabgkHiTiaaikdacaGGSaaccaGae8hiaaIaaG OmaiaacYcacqWFGaaicaaI0aGae8hiaaIaamizaiaadkeaaaa@4509@

Note

  • Adjusting E b / N 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadw eadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaGccaGGVaGaamOtamaaBaaaleaacaaI Waaabeaaaaa@3B6D@ adapts the noise power spectral density. These settings are not modified:
    Transmitting power 1 V 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaaik dacaWGwbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaa@399A@
    Bit duration T b i t MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaads fadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaiaadMgacaWG0baabeaaaaa@3AED@

    1 μ s MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaaik dacqaH8oqBcaWGZbaaaa@3A84@

    Energy per bit E b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadw eadaWgaaWcbaGaamOyaaqabaaaaa@38F7@ 1 μ V s 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaaik dacqaH8oqBcaWGwbGaam4CamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaaaaa@3C48@

    The initial noise power-spectral-density of N 0 = 1 μ V 2 / H z MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaad6 eadaWgaaWcbaGaaGimaaqabaGccqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaeqiVd0MaamOv amaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaac+cacaWGibGaamOEaaaa@40A1@ results in:

    E b N 0 = 1μV s 2 1μ V 2 /Hz =1=0dB MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBamXvP5wqonvsaeHbd9wDYLwzYbqe e0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlf9irVeeu0dXdh9vqqj=hEeeu0xXdbba9fr Fj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXdar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYx e9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaamaala aabaGaamyramaaBaaaleaacaWGIbaabeaaaOqaaiaad6eadaWgaaWc baGaaGimaaqabaaaaOGaeyypa0ZaaSaaaeaacaaIXaGaeqiVd0Maam OvaiaadohadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaikdaaaaakeaacaaIXaGaeqiVd0Ma amOvamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaac+cacaWGibGaamOEaaaacq GH9aqpcaaIXaGaeyypa0JaaGimaiaadsgacaWGcbaaaa@4D10@
  • This BER simulation is quite slow as it implements quadrature modulation and pulse shaping. To boost simulation speed you might change to QPSK BER - equivalent baseband without pulse shaping.

Next steps

  • Vary the pulse shape. Note that the pulse shape has no effect on the BER but the transmit spectrum. 
    Pulse1
    Simulation - Setup (F12)
  • Switch to equivalent baseband. Note that the modem doesn’t affect the BER performance but the shifts the transmit spectrum to the base band. 

    Pulse2

  • Switch to modem none. Note that the modem doesn’t affect the BER performance. There’s only one sample per symbol and no pulse shaping, so the simulation is much faster.

    Pulse3